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Canadian International Trade Tribunal

Trade Agreements


Canada has negotiated Foreign Investment Promotion and Protection Agreements (FIPAs) with 29 countries and is in the process of negotiating with 7 more. These agreements are designed to protect Canadian investors and investments in foreign countries by ensuring non-discriminatory treatment as well as a minimum standard of treatment in accordance with customary international law. The FIPAs also provide that the foreign country cannot require Canadian-owned businesses to give preference to domestic products or to export a certain amount of their production. The FIPAs also prohibit expropriation of Canadian-owned businesses except for a public purpose, on a non-discriminatory basis in accordance with the principles of law, and on the basis of compensation at fair market value, paid without delay. There are also dispute settlement provisions setting out how disputes will be resolved without having to go before foreign courts. (Click here for Canada's model FIPA.)

Canada has FIPAs with the following countries:

  • Argentina
  • Armenia
  • Barbados
  • Costa Rica
  • Croatia
  • Czech Republic
  • Ecuador
  • Egypt
  • El Salvador (not yet in force)
  • Hungary
  • Jordan (not yet in force)
  • Latvia
  • Lebanon
  • Panama
  • Peru
  • Philippines
  • Poland
  • Romania
  • Russia
  • South Africa (not yet in force)
  • Slovak Republic
  • Thailand
  • Trinidad and Tobago
  • Ukraine
  • Uruguay
  • Venezuela

Canada has concluded FIPA negotiations with the following countries:

  • India
  • Madagascar

Canada is in the process of negotiating FIPAs with the following countries:

  • Bahrain
  • China
  • Indonesia
  • Kuwait
  • Mongolia
  • Tanzania
  • Tunisia
  • Vietnam


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